Best Practice for Test Classes in Salesforce

  • To deploy to production at-least 75% code coverage is required, But your focus shouldn’t be on the percentage of code that is covered. Instead, you should make sure that every use case of your application is covered, including positive and negative cases, as well as bulk and single records. This should lead to 75% or more of your code being covered by unit tests.
  • Test class must start with @isTest annotation if class version is more than 25.
  • @isTest annotation with test method  is equivalent to testMethod keyword.
  • Test class and method default access is private ,no need to add access specifier.
  • Classes with @isTest annotation can’t be a interface or enum.
  • Test method code can’t be invoked by non test request.
  • Stating with salesforce API 28.0 test method can not reside inside non test classes.
  • Always use @testSetup method dedicated to create test records for that class. This is newly added annotation and very powerful.
  • If possible Don’t use seeAllData=true, Create your Own Test Data. SeeAllData=true will not work for API 23 version earlier.
  • User, profile, organization, AsyncApexjob, Corntrigger, RecordType, ApexClass, ApexComponent ,ApexPage we can access without (seeAllData=true).
  • @TestVisible annotation can be used to access private members and methods inside Test Class. Now we don’t need to compromise with access specifiers for sake of code coverage.
  • Test method and test classes are not counted as a part of code limit.
  • Test method takes no argument, commit no data to database, send no email, flagged with testMethod keyword.
  • Use Test.startTest() to reset Governor limits in Test methods.
  • If you are doing any Asynchronous operation in code, then don’t forget to call Test.stopTest() to make sure that operation is completed.
  • Use System.runAs() method to enforce OWD and Profile related testings. This is very important from Security point of View.
  • System.runAs() will not enforce user permission or field level permission.
  • Use As much as Assertions like System.AssertEquals or System.AssertNotEquals.
  • Always test Batch Capabilities of your code by passing 20 to 100 records.
  • Always try to pass null values in every methods. This is the area where most of program fails, unknowingly.
  • Please use call out mock to test web-service call out .
  • System.debug statement are not counted as a part of apex code limit.
  • We can run unit test by using Salesforce Standard UI,Force.com IDE ,Console ,API.
  • Maximum number of test classes run per 24 hour of period is  not grater of 500 or 10 multiplication of test classes of your organization.

Testing HTTP Callouts by Implementing the HttpCalloutMock Interface in Salesforce

Callout Class:

public class CalloutClass {
    
    public static HttpResponse getInfoFromExternalService() {
        HttpRequest req = new HttpRequest();
        req.setEndpoint('http://api.salesforce.com/foo/bar');
        req.setMethod('GET');
        Http h = new Http();
        HttpResponse res = h.send(req);
        return res;
    }
}

Mock Http Response Generator Class:

@isTest
global class MockHttpResponseGenerator implements HttpCalloutMock {
    
    global HTTPResponse respond(HTTPRequest req) {
        
        System.assertEquals('http://api.salesforce.com/foo/bar', req.getEndpoint());
        System.assertEquals('GET', req.getMethod());
        
        HttpResponse res = new HttpResponse();
        res.setHeader('Content-Type', 'application/json');
        res.setBody('{"foo":"bar"}');
        res.setStatusCode(200);
        return res;
    }
}

Callout Test Class:

@isTest
private class CalloutClassTest {
     @isTest static void testCallout() {
         
        Test.setMock(HttpCalloutMock.class, new MockHttpResponseGenerator());
        
        HttpResponse res = CalloutClass.getInfoFromExternalService();
        
        String contentType = res.getHeader('Content-Type');
        System.assert(contentType == 'application/json');
        
        String actualValue = res.getBody();
        String expectedValue = '{"foo":"bar"}';
        
        System.assertEquals(actualValue, expectedValue);
        System.assertEquals(200, res.getStatusCode());
    }
}

Limit Class and Limit Methods in Salesforce

The Limits methods return the specific limit for the particular governor, such as the number of calls of a method or the amount of heap size remaining.

Because Apex runs in a multitenant environment, the Apex runtime engine strictly enforces a number of limits to ensure that runaway Apex doesn’t monopolize shared resources.

None of the Limits methods require an argument. The format of the limits methods is as follows:

 Integer queryLimitRows = Limits.getLimitQueryRows();

There are two versions of every method: the first returns the amount of the resource that has been used while the second version contains the word limit and returns the total amount of the resource that is available.

Limits Methods:
The following are methods for Limits. All methods are static.

System.debug('Limits.getAggregateQueries - '+ Limits.getAggregateQueries());
System.debug('Limits.getLimitAggregateQueries - '+ Limits.getLimitAggregateQueries());
System.debug('Limits.getCallouts - '+ Limits.getCallouts());
System.debug('Limits.getLimitCallouts - '+ Limits.getLimitCallouts());
System.debug('Limits.getCpuTime - '+ Limits.getCpuTime());
System.debug('Limits.getLimitCpuTime - '+ Limits.getLimitCpuTime());
System.debug('Limits.getDMLRows - '+ Limits.getDMLRows());
System.debug('Limits.getLimitDMLRows - '+ Limits.getLimitDMLRows());
System.debug('Limits.getDMLStatements - '+ Limits.getDMLStatements());
System.debug('Limits.getLimitDMLStatements - '+ Limits.getLimitDMLStatements());
System.debug('Limits.getEmailInvocations - '+ Limits.getEmailInvocations());
System.debug('Limits.getLimitEmailInvocations - '+ Limits.getLimitEmailInvocations());
System.debug('Limits.getFutureCalls - '+ Limits.getFutureCalls());
System.debug('Limits.getLimitFutureCalls - '+ Limits.getLimitFutureCalls());
System.debug('Limits.getHeapSize - '+ Limits.getHeapSize());
System.debug('Limits.getLimitHeapSize - '+ Limits.getLimitHeapSize());
System.debug('Limits.getMobilePushApexCalls - '+ Limits.getMobilePushApexCalls());
System.debug('Limits.getLimitMobilePushApexCalls - '+ Limits.getLimitMobilePushApexCalls());
System.debug('Limits.getQueries - '+ Limits.getQueries());
System.debug('Limits.getLimitQueries - '+ Limits.getLimitQueries());
System.debug('Limits.getQueryLocatorRows - '+ Limits.getQueryLocatorRows());
System.debug('Limits.getLimitQueryLocatorRows - '+ Limits.getLimitQueryLocatorRows());
System.debug('Limits.getQueryRows - '+ Limits.getQueryRows());
System.debug('Limits.getLimitQueryRows - '+ Limits.getLimitQueryRows());
System.debug('Limits.getQueueableJobs - '+ Limits.getQueueableJobs());
System.debug('Limits.getLimitQueueableJobs - '+ Limits.getLimitQueueableJobs());
System.debug('Limits.getSoslQueries - '+ Limits.getSoslQueries());
System.debug('Limits.getLimitSoslQueries - '+ Limits.getLimitSoslQueries());

Insert Records in Salesforce by using JavaScript

In this article I’ll demonstrate how to insert record in Salesforce object by using javascript, in VF page without any standard or custom controller or by apex class.

By using AJAX Toolkit we can do this task easily. There are two types of AJAX Toolkit one is synchronous and another one is asynchronous call.

Here is a simple example of data insert using Javascript in Visualforce page. In below example I’m using synchronous call.
These are the steps to insert data using Javascript:

  1. Connecting to the AJAX Toolkit(By using login methods or getting Session_ID).
  2. Embedding the API methods in JavaScript.
  3. Processing the results.

Sample Code:

<apex:page id="pg">
    <script src="/soap/ajax/20.0/connection.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
	<script>
		function insertAcc(){

			// Getting Session ID.
			sforce.connection.sessionId = "{!$Api.Session_ID}";

			//Creating New Account Record.
			var account = new sforce.SObject("Account");

			//Getting Account Name from inputText.
			account.Name = document.getElementById("pg:frm:pb:pbs:pbsi:txtName").value;

			//Create method 
			var result = sforce.connection.create([account]);

			//Getting result 
			if (result[0].getBoolean("success")) {
				alert("New Account is created with id " + result[0].id);
			}
			else {
				alert("failed to create new Account " + result[0]);
			}
		}
	</script>
	<apex:form id="frm">
		<apex:pageBlock title="Insert Account" tabStyle="Account" id="pb">
			<apex:pageBlockSection title="Account Name" columns="1" id="pbs">
				<apex:pageBlockSectionItem id="pbsi">
					<apex:outputLabel value="Name" />
					<apex:inputText title="Name" id="txtName" />
				</apex:pageBlockSectionItem>
			</apex:pageBlockSection> 
			<apex:pageBlockButtons>
				<apex:commandButton onclick="return insertAcc();" value="Save"/>
			</apex:pageBlockButtons>
		</apex:pageBlock>
	</apex:form>
</apex:page>

URL Class in Salesforce

//Create a new account called "Test Account" that we will create a link for later.
Account acc = new Account(Name = 'Test Account');
Insert acc;

//Get the base URL.
String baseURL = URL.getSalesforceBaseUrl().toExternalForm();
System.debug('Base URL: ' + baseURL);       

//Get the URL for the current request.
String currentReqURL = URL.getCurrentRequestUrl().toExternalForm();
System.debug('Current request URL: ' + currentReqURL);        

//Create the account URL from the base URL.
String accURL = URL.getSalesforceBaseUrl().toExternalForm() + '/' + acc.Id;
System.debug('URL of a particular account: ' + accURL); 

//Get some parts of the base URL.
System.debug('Host: ' + URL.getSalesforceBaseUrl().getHost());   
System.debug('Protocol: ' + URL.getSalesforceBaseUrl().getProtocol());

//Get the query string of the current request.
System.debug('Query: ' + URL.getCurrentRequestUrl().getQuery());